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Causes of Kidney and Gall Bladder Stones

 What are the causes and  Types of Kidney and Gall Bladder stones




Types of Renal (Kidney) Stone:-

Causes of renal stones
There are four main types of kidney stones. 


Calcium stones 

Most kidney stones are made of calcium compounds, especially calcium oxalate. Calcium phosphate and other minerals also may be present. Conditions that cause high calcium levels in the body, such as hyperparathyroidism, increase the risk of calcium stones. High levels of oxalate also increase the risk for calcium stones. 


Uric acid stones 

Some kidney stones are made of uric acid, a waste product normally passed out of the body in the urine. 


Struvite stones 

Some kidney stones are struvite stones. They can also be called infection stones if they occur with kidney or urinary tract infections (UTIs). These types of kidney stones sometimes are also called staghorn calculi if they grow large enough. 


Cystine stones 

Less common are kidney stones made of a chemical called cystine. Cystine stones are more likely to occur in people whose families have a condition that results in too much cystine in the urine (cystinuria). 


Causes of Kidney Stones 


There is no consensus as to why kidney stones form. 


Heredity: 

Some people are more susceptible to forming kidney stones, and heredity may play a role. The majority of kidney stones are made of calcium, and hypercalciuria (high levels of calcium in the urine) is one risk factor. The predisposition to high levels of calcium in the urine may be passed on from generation to generation. 


Geographical location: 

There may be a geographic predisposition to forming kidney stones, so where a person lives may make it more likely for them to form kidney stones. There are regional stone belts, with people living in the southern United States having an increased risk of stone formation. The hot climate in this region combined with inadequate fluid intake may cause people to be relatively dehydrated, with their urine becoming more concentrated and allowing chemicals to come in closer contact to form the nidus, or beginning, of a stone. 


Diet: 

Diet may or may not be an issue. If a person is susceptible to forming stones, then foods high in animal proteins and salt may increase the risk, however, if a person is not susceptible to forming stones, diet probably will not change that risk. 


Medications: 

People taking diuretics (or water pills) and those who consume excess calcium-containing antacids can increase the amount of calcium in their urine and potentially increase their risk of forming stones. Taking excess amounts of vitamins A and D are also associated with higher levels of calcium in the urine. Patients with HIV who take the medication indinavir (Crixivan) may form indinavir stones. Other commonly prescribed medications associated with stone formation include phenytoin (Dilantin) and antibiotics like ceftriaxone (Rocephin) and ciprofloxacin (Cipro). 



Types of Gall Bladder Stone :-

Causes of Gall bladder stones
There are two main types of gallstones: 


Cholesterol gallstones 

These may form if there is too much cholesterol in the bile? They are the main type of gallstones in the UK and the USA. 


Pigment gallstones 

These form when the bile has too much bilirubin. They are more common among patients who have liver disease, infected bile tubes or blood disorders, such as sickle-cell anemia. 


Causes of Gall Bladder Stone 


Experts are not completely sure why some people develop a chemical imbalance in their gallbladder which causes gallstones, while others do not. However, we do know that gallstones are more common among: 


* Overweight/obese people, especially women. A study revealed that a bulging midriff almost doubles a womans chances of developing gallstones and the need for surgery to remove them. 


* Obese children have a considerably higher risk of developing gallstones, compared to kids of normal weight. 


* Women who have been pregnant * People who have recently lost lots of weight 


* Intentionally losing weight and then regaining it may increase men's risk for gallstones later in life 


* Women taking oral contraceptives * Women undergoing high-dose estrogen therapy 


* People with a close relative who has had gallstones 


* A study revealed that a gene variant significantly increases the risk of developing gallstones 


* People whose intake of dietary fat is high 


* Twice as many women get gallstones than men * People over 60 years of age 


* Native American Indians 


* People who take statins (cholesterol-lowering drugs) 


* People with diabetes 


* Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) for women during the menopause is linked to a higher risk of gallbladder problems.

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